Early cassette culture 2: T33 - T33.4/T33.7-9 & TO:7C
Early cassette culture 3: TO:1 - TO:2 & TO:4/TOC:1 & TO:C2
Early cassette culture 1: T1 - T5


Between 1983 and 1989, Touch released a series of cassettes which were packaged either as a standard cassette with extended inlay card, or with an A6 booklet in a clear plastic wallet. Here for the historical record are the front cover artwork, the audio & visual content, and notes. All are out of print, of course. The contents and credits are copied directly from the productions themselves.




Touch 33 [T33]

Side One


Koto Numariya : Nakano-xu
Andy Ross : Bush / Xylatymbou
1000 in the one
S. Eritrea : Chant
a clean mirror
Gamelan music from Bali
Soliman Gamil : Music Dialogue
return of paradise
Fasili Kassa : East of the river
Bamyali : Sheep
The Children's Hour [read by Arthur Storey McKenzie]

Side Two


Touch 33 / Andy Warhol : Orange Disaster
Flesh : Box [extract]
Terry Fox / Touch 33 : Internal Sound
Empty Words : Sign Language
NOT I : Triptych: i. The Blue Wind ii. 4 Doors iii. Painted Faces

Edited by A.M.McKenzie and Jon Wozencroft. Design: Garry Mouat




Islands In-Between [T33.2]

Side One

"Day and Night"
Gending Gending
Degung Instrumental
Cremation Gamelan
Dag combination dance
King Rama
Ramayana ll

Side Two

One Language
Temple Gamelan
Frog Sound
Degung instrumental no. 2


Indonesians often use the name 'Nusantara', meaning 'the islands in-between', when referring to the archipelago that forms their Republic. This cassette covers only some of the cultural activity on Java and Bali, the best known islands out of the 13,700 counted by statisticians, so it is not intended to be in any way definitive. The selections are more like musical postcards of two cultures balanced between tradition and tourism.

legend: meridian 105 - 115 east

Audio notes:
King Rama, One Language and Garuda were written and played by Jon Keliehor and Orlando Kimber. © Bruton Music

Side one

There is no specific translation for 'Gending Gending'. The term generally means 'orchestra' or 'gamelan composition'. The Javanese word for hammer is 'gamel', and the music is said to encourage the growth of plants. 'Suling' - the end blown flute. 'Degung instrumental' - from the Sudabese region of West Java to the speakers of tourists cafes. 'Genggong' - the first Balinese instrument, a mouth harp made from the palm and played by Igusti Ngurah Togog at his homestay in Peliatan, Bali. 'Cremation Gamelan' - a portable ensemble plays while the cremation tower is raised from the death pavilion. Before travelling a mile along the Peliatan road to the Temple of the Dead, the tower is spun around on its bearer's shoulders to confuse the soul, preventing its return home to trouble the living. The overture played as the tower is set alight (with a magnifying glass - matches are thought to be unclean), is recorded on 'Touch Travel'. Dag combination dance - in Bali, individual dances are sometimes merged into modern adaptations, not only as a result of tourism - the gamelan elders think popularisation is the best way to attract young people to dance, though dividing lines are difficult to draw. 'Dag' is a combination of 'Kecak' and 'Kebyar', performed from the squatting position in a pantomime style very popular with children. Attention is focused on the facial expressions of the dancers which interpret man's ever-changing moods. 'King Rama' - the story of the 'Kecak' (monkey) dance is taken from the Hindu Ramayana epic and portrays Rama'a search for his wife, Sita, who has been abducted to the monkey forest. Rama is an incarnation of Vishnu, The Creator, and serves as an ideal for the Hindu man. 'Ramayana ll' - the opening sequence of the gamelan acvcompaniment to the 4 part ballet held on the full moon-lit nights of June, July and August at Prambanan temple complex. The largest central temple is dedictade to Shiva, the destroyer. The voices that follow were recorded on a train at Bandung station at 3am, en route to Yogjakarta. Local sellers board trains whatever the hour, and every carriage becomes an indoor market.

Side two

'Watermark' - nightfall by a bridge near the Monkey Forest, Ubud. 'One Language' - there are c. 300 different languages and dialects in Indonesia. After independence in 1945, Bahasa Indonesian became the universally accepted language, though its use had already been encouraged by Nationalists as a political tool against the Dutch colonisers, and sanctioned by Japanese invaders who wished to spread propaganda to the villagers. 'Temple Gamelan' - musicians play while women bring ornately prepared offerings to the temple shrines on auspicious days of the Hindu calendar. Spirits and demons cannot live without food and drink, so the women fan the essence towards the divine recipient before offerings are placed on the ground to waiting dogs. Smaller offerings made daily, are left at strategic points around the house and alongside the ricefields. 'Frog Sound' - the sound comes from the reed mouthpiece of the genggong harp. Played by Togog and his son. 'Ducks' - every morning young boys and old men direct the family ducks out of their pens and along narrow paths into ricefields that are wet enough to paddle in. 'Tenun' - the Balinese weaving dance depicting women working at this traditional craft. 'Anjung' - the name given to the hordes of semi-wild dogs that roam Bali's villages, barking instinctively at any approaching white man. 'Garuda' - Indonesia's national symbol is the Garuda bird. Vishnu's chosen vehicle and thus the king of flight associated with creative energy. Garuda is a dominant motif in Indonesian art, the name of the national airline and the seal of the official state coat of arms, beneath which appears the words 'Bhinneka Tunggal Ika' - literally 'many are there but there is only one'.

Mastered 22/23 April - use noise reduction. Edited by Jon Wozencroft and Mike Harding. Design: Jon Wozencroft




Drumming for Creation [T33.3]

Side a

Jaliya Musicians - ALLA L'AA KE
The Bagamoyo Group - 9 string ISEZE
The Bagamoyo Group - DRUM CHIME

Side b

The Bagamoyo Group - 13 string ISEZE
Walo Shatan Gwari -
The Bagamoyo Group - DRUM & VOICE
Jaliya Musicians - KAIRA


Audio notes:
This tape and texts offers just a few examples from an event that encompassed drumming sessions and instrument making workshops, the West African pop of Sir Warrior and the London based Ochestra Jazira. Amongst the recordings available through specialist record shops is 'Tanzania Yetu', recorded by The Bagamoyo musicians in London for Triple Earth Records, and containing information that need not be duplicated here. Of the literature available, John Miller Chernoff's 'African Rhythm and African Sensibility' is recommended (University of Chicago Press). The Gwari songtitles are literal translations as indicated in the Nigerian troupe's programme notes. Thanks to the Arts Department of the Commonwealth Institute and the National Sound Archive for their time, support and resources. Tape encoded with Dolby B noise reduction. Cassette © Touch/Commonwealth Institute

Jaliya Musicians of the Gambia:
Mawdo Suso (voice & balaphon), Mamadu Suso (voice & kora), Mamanding Kouyateh (singer)
The Bagamoyo Group are from Tanzania
Walo Shatan Gwari: The ensemble, led by Malam Walo, belongs to the Gwari people of Niger State.

Drumming for Creation was edited by J.Wozencroft and M.Harding. Design by Panni and Mooie Charrington


Ritual: Lands End [T33.4]


Side One

ritual +
Cross purpose
PINK ELLN - Lice Skitt Frög
Traffic Noise
Screaming Leaf
A short jingle by SUDDEN SWAY
praise company
Greater Faith Cathedral Broadcast
DET WIEHL - Play Sandwich

Side Two

Satsumaimo man
SUNS OF ARQA - Sanskrit Hymn
GRAEME MILLER - Ash wei-ei-wah, Ash wei-ei-wah (Invocation of Past)
Snake Charmer
GILBERT & GEORGE - Twisted and Aggressive
REGULAR MUSIC - Music For Film



SOLIMAN GAMIL - The Egyptian Music [TO:7C]


Side One

Melody of Nile
The Sinsimia
Melody of Love
Rhythmic Dialogue
Promenade on the Nile

Side Two

Sufi Dialogue
The Valley of Kings and Queens
Sacred Lake
Collecting the Harvest
Pretence and Destiny
The New Nubia

Audio notes:
Recorded in Cairo. Thanks to Suraya Moyine, The Egyptian State Information Service
. Cover by P. & S. Charrington. This release was also issued on vinyl [TO:7LP] & CD [TO:7CD]




Narodna [T33.7]


Side One

Pece Atanasovskog - Postupano Oro
The Musicians of Zagreb - Drmes (trad.)
Dragoslav Aksentijevic Pavle - Come All Ye Sons of the Earth
Pece Atanasovskog - Zetovsko Oro
Pece Atanasovskog - Berance
The Folk Orchestra of Albania - Vallje E Nuseve me Sharki
The Folk Orchestra of Albania - Dite E Zeze Ish Kone E Honja
Pece Atanasovskog - Staro Tikvesko Oro

Side Two

Capella Ragusina - Himna Sv. Vlaha(trad.)
Dragoslav Aksentijevic Pavle - Polieleos Servikos
Dragoslav Aksentijevic Pavle - Kratima Terirem
Bells of Chilander
Himna Sv. Vlaha (instrumental)

Audio notes:
The Folk Orchestra of Albania was conducted by Qamili Vogel.

Narodna was mixed 11.11.88 by Tezak and de Galantha, with thanks to Dragoslav Aksentijevic Pavle and the Serbian Orthodox Church of Zagreb.

The cassette, which was packaged in a Magnam Products Microcase, contained a folded card [see above].
Design: Jon Wozencroft




Glas c/w Ustá [T33.8]


In 1932, a group from the remote town of Pik Grandisonyy, situated in the Vostochnyy Sayan near the Mongolian border, set out to escape the Great Famine and headed west. Having eaten their livestock, the villagers were forced to walk.; the journey would take two years. This collection represents some of the songs they sang on their way.

Design: Jon Wozencroft


BEHZAD - Myth [T33.9]

Side One

Myth (Mish)
Love (Mitre)
Spring (Bahaar)
Friend (Doust)
Free (Azad)
Moving Sky (Nielofar)

Side Two

Change Bringer (Kavian)
Sun (Korsheed)
The End (Payan)
Apocalypse (Rastaxis)
Against Gravity (Afarin)


All arrangements of original songs are based on pre-Islamic music from the Sassanian and Achamenian eras (100 BC to 500 AD). Instruments used on this recording are: TAMBOUR - the first documentary evidence referring to this 3-stringed acoustic long-necked lute occurs in Susa, an ancient city in South West Persia. In ancient myth, Soroush (or 'The Muses') played the tambour to awaken humans with the sound of love as they slept after the creation of the world. Originally the lutes were called 'star' or 'setar', meaning 'sound producer'. The sound of the tambour represents the planet Mars, or 'the Iron Planet'. In Sufi music (ie post-islam), a tambour is usually played with the DAF - this tambourine represents the Sun and means 'beat' or 'tap' (the same root as the word 'tabla'), which is the sound of the heart. Together, the tambour and the daf represent the planets revolving around the sun, and the combination of the rhythms symbolises the secret of creation. The daf also represents femininity and the tambour masculinity (as Yin and Yan). TOMBAK (featured here on Spring) is the most common drum to be found in Persian music. In the Sassanian era (the last dynasty before Islam), 'tombak' meant poetical rhythm, or the skilful use of the fingers to produce a wide range of sounds. It has the same linguistic derivation as 'tambour', and is made from wood and goat or sheep hide.

Inspiration for the songs comes from a desire to preserve pre-Islamic melodies and rhythms. More dynamic, they combine the immediacy of popular folk songs with an ancient classical spirit - the Iran that does not appear on television. In spite of 'World Music', Iranian pop is destroying Persian culture by ignoring traditional values and beliefs. Why should this be "inevitable"? A healthy tree has healthy roots.


Audio notes:
Recorded and engineered by Behzad Blourfroushan and Olivier Abitbol, to whom grateful thanks are due.
Kensington, Summer 1989

Design: Jon Wozencroft